Pravidla Hry Skat Bände Aufschlüsselung
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The cards, in each suit, rank from highest to lowest: A, K, Q, J, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2. The first dealer is chosen at random, and the turn to deal rotates clockwise.
The cards are shuffled and then dealt singly, in clockwise order beginning with the player on dealer's left, until all 52 cards have been dealt and everyone has In Spades, all four players bid a number of tricks.
Each team adds together the bids of the two partners, and the total is the number of tricks that team must try to win in order to get a positive score.
The bidding begins with the player to dealer's left and continues clockwise around the table. Everyone must bid a number, and in theory any number from 0 to 13 is allowed.
Unlike other games with bidding, there is no requirement for each bid to be higher than the last one, and players are not allowed to pass.
There is no second round of bidding - bids once made cannot be altered. A bid of 0 tricks is known as Nil.
This is a declaration that that the player who bid Nil will not win any tricks during the play. There is an extra bonus for this if it succeeds and a penalty if it fails.
The partnership also has the objective of winning the number of tricks bid by the Nil's partner. It is not possible to bid no tricks without bidding a Nil.
If you don't want to go for the Nil bonus or penalty you must bid at least 1. Some players allow a bid of Blind nil.
This is a nil bid declared before a player looks at his cards. After everyone has bid and before the first lead, the bidder may exchange two cards with partner - the bidder discards two cards face down; partner picks them up and gives back two cards face-down in return.
It is usually agreed that Blind Nil may only be bid by a player whose side is losing by at least points. The player to dealer's left leads any card except a spade to the first trick.
Each player, in turn, clockwise, must follow suit if able; if unable to follow suit, the player may play any card. A trick containing a spade is won by the highest spade played; if no spade is played, the trick is won by the highest card of the suit led.
The winner of each trick leads to the next. Spades may not be led until either. A side that takes at least as many tricks as its bid calls for receives a score equal to 10 times its bid.
Additional tricks overtricks are worth an extra one point each. Sandbagging rule : Overtricks are colloquially known as bags. A side which over several deals accumulates ten or more bags has points deducted from its score.
Any bags beyond ten are carried over to the next cycle of ten overtricks - that is if they reached twenty overtricks they would lose another points and so on.
Note: it is not necessary to keep track of overtricks separately as the cumulative number of overtricks taken appears as the final digit of the team's score, if positive.
Example: Suppose a team whose score is bids 5 tricks. If they win 7 tricks they score 52, taking their score to If they win 9 tricks they score 54 and lose , bringing their score to If a bid of nil is successful, the nil bidder's side receives points.
This is in addition to the score won or lost by the partner of the nil bidder for tricks made. If a bid of nil fails - that is, the bidder takes at least one trick - the bidder's side loses points, but still receives any amount scored for the partner's bid.
The usual rule is that when a nil fails, the tricks won by the nil bidder do not count towards making the partner's bid, but do count as bags for the team.
A bid of blind nil scores twice as much as an ordinary nil - it wins points if successful and loses points if it fails.
The side which reaches points first wins the game. If both sides reach points in the same deal, the side with the higher score wins. Dennis J Barmore, who used to run a mailing list for information about Spades, Bid Whist and Pinochle clubs and tournaments in the USA, contributed the following description of a variant which is widely played by African Americans.
The rules are as in basic spades above , but with the following differences:. Christian A. Baxter contributed the following variation, which is popular in New York City.
Two jokers are included and the 2 and 2 are removed from the deck. The rank of trumps from high to low is: big red joker, small black joker, 2, 2, A, K, Q, J, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3.
Note that for the purpose of following suit, the jokers and the two of diamonds count as spades. Redd reports that many players keep the 2 as the lowest club and instead remove both red twos, and many count the black joker as the highest trump followed by the red Joker, so that the top trumps are big black joker, small red joker, 2, 2, A, K , The dealer shuffles, the player to dealer's right cuts, and 13 cards each are dealt.
Occasionally a "French Cut" is used, which works as follows. After the dealer has shuffled, the player to the right divides it into four face-down stacks and flips over the top card of each stack.
One of these cards is given to each player - the cutter decides who gets what card. Then the deck is reassembled by stacking the four smaller decks without the four top cards and without shuffling again.
These cards are dealt one at a time in the normal way, beginning to dealer's left and ending with the dealer, so that everyone has 13 cards, and each player has one card that is known to everyone.
Partnership bidding is used, beginning with the dealer's opponents. Partners may tell each other how many "tricks" or "books" sure tricks they think they can make and how many "possibles" extra tricks that may or may not be made they have.
Based on this, they agree on a bid for the partnership. When the non-dealing team has bid, the dealer's team agree their bid in a similar way.
All conversations are heard by all players, so the dealer's team may also be influenced by the nondealers' discussion. The minimum bid for each team is 4 and the maximum is There are no Nil bids.
A partnership which is losing by a margin of at least points may choose not to look at their cards, but bid "blind".
The minimum blind bid is 6 tricks. A blind bid scores double if successful but only singly if lost. After agreeing on a blind bid, the partners pick up their cards and look at them.
If they think they can win at least 10 tricks, they may "come out" of their blind bid and bid 10, but in this case they only win singly rather than for a bid of The player to dealer's left leads to the first trick.
Spades may not be led in the first three tricks unless they have been "broken" by a player trumping a lead of another suit with a spade.
From the fourth trick onwards any card can be led. For a normal non-blind bid from 4 to 9 to succeed, the team must win the number of tricks bid, and may win one or two overtricks sandbags , but not more than that.
For a successful bid they win 10 times the number bid, with nothing extra for overtricks. If the team wins fewer tricks than they bid, or wins three or more sandbags, they are set and in this case they lose 10 points per trick bid.
For a non-blind bid of 10, the team scores points if they take 10, 11 or 12 tricks. If they bid 10 and win all 13 tricks they win the whole game.
If they take fewer than 10 tricks they lose A team that takes all 13 tricks, known as a Boston , also gains "bragging rights".
That is the case even if they bid less than 10, in which case they are set and score minus their bid for taking too many overtricks.
For a blind bid, the team scores double the amount for the corresponding non-blind bid if they take at least as many tricks as they bid, and there is no limit on sandbags.
This a successful blind 10 wins , though a team that bids blind and then comes out for a non-blind bid of 10 scores only A blind bid fails if the team takes fewer trick than they bid, and in this case there is no double - they lose just 10 points per trick bid for a blind bid of 6 to 9, or for a failed blind The first hand of a new game is normally played without any bidding.
The teams just play to win as many tricks as possible and score 10 points per trick. If a team is set twice in succession "shot back to back" , they lose the whole game , irrespective of the scores.
If both teams are set on two consecutive deals, the team with the higher score wins. Redd reports that in some groups, a team survives two consecutive sets but loses the whole game if they are set three times in succession.
If the game is not ended by a Boston or a team losing twice in a row, the first team to score or more points, or the team with the higher score if both achieve this on the same deal, wins the game.
If there is a tie at or more points, further deals must be played until the tie is broken. Here are some further variants, mostly contributed by Theodore Hwa.
In some versions of Spades, some or all of the four twos are elevated to the top of the spade suit, are ranked in some specified order, and are considered to be spades.
The rest of the cards rank as in normal. Spades can also be played with a 54 card pack - the standard pack of 52 plus 2 distinguishable jokers. In this case the two jokers are elevated to be the top two cards of the spade suit, with a particular order of the jokers specified.
If jokers are used and no cards are eliminated, then there will be two cards left over at the end of the deal, and these are given to the dealer.
Having looked at all 15 cards, the dealer discards any two cards face down. Some play that the two extra cards are given to the holder of the two of clubs, rather than the dealer.
Some play that the discard takes place after the bidding. Jeffrey Jacobs reports a variant "Widow Spades" which uses a pack with two jokers, but in this case the two cards remaining at the end of the deal are set aside unseen - no one may look at them until after the play.
This adds an element of uncertainty, since sometimes a high trump is unexpectedly out of play. Michael Mitchell reports a variation with 54 cards in which the two cards remaining after the deal are taken by the team that bids the greater number of tricks.
They may agree to take one card each, or for one player to take both cards. If the teams bid equal numbers of tricks - for example six each - then each team gets one of the remaining cards - they decide between themselves which member of each partnership should take it.
In either card, the player s who have taken the extra cards discard unwanted cards face down to bring their hands back to 13 cards before the play begins.
Some play that before the bidding, each player passes three cards face down to partner. The cards are passed simultaneously - players must decide what to pass before knowing what cards they will receive.
Some play that instead of the players bidding strictly in turn, each partnership agrees on a bid, through a process of discussion.
First the non-dealer's side agrees on a bid. Each partner on that side communicates the amount of tricks they expect to take, based on their cards.
A certain amount of unspecified bantering about "halves" and "maybes" is permitted, but not specific information about cards held. For example you are allowed to say "I know I can take 4 tricks, I might be able to take 6"; you are not allowed to say "I have a couple of high hearts and a singleton in clubs".
The agreed upon bid is then written down. The other side then agrees on a bid in the same manner. Some play that each team must bid a minimum of 4 tricks.
If a player bids Nil, that player's partner must bid at least 4. It is based on the three-player game of Tarock , also known as Tarot , and the four-player game of Schafkopf equivalent to the American game Sheepshead.
He then made two discards, constituting the Skat , and announced a contract. The first book on the rules of Skat was published in by a secondary school teacher J.
These were the first official rules finally published in a book form in by Theodor Thomas of Leipzig. The word Skat is a Tarok term  derived from the Latin word scarto, scartare , which means to discard or reject, and its derivative scatola , a box or a place for safe-keeping.
Skat is a game for three players, who are known as forehand , middlehand and rearhand , rearhand also being the dealer see picture. At the beginning of each round, or "deal", one player becomes declarer and the other two players become the defending team.
The two defenders are not allowed to communicate in any way except by their choice of cards to play. The game can also be played by four players.
In this case, the dealer will sit out the round that was dealt, while the player to his right will play the role taken by the dealer in the three-player variant.
A central aspect of the game are the three coexisting varieties called "suit", "grand" and "null" games, that differ in suit order, scoring and even overall goal to achieve.
Each round of the game starts with a bidding phase to determine the declarer and the required minimum game value explained below.
Then, ten tricks are played, allowing players to take trick points. Each card has a face value except in null games and is worth that number of points for the player winning the trick.
The total face value of all cards is points. The declarer's goal is to take at least 61 points in tricks in order to win that round of the game. Otherwise, the defending team wins the round.
Points from tricks are not directly added to the players' overall score, they are used only to determine the outcome of the game win or loss for declarer , although winning by certain margins may increase the score for that round.
After each round a score is awarded in accordance with the game value. If the declarer wins they are awarded a positive score, if they lose the score is doubled and subtracted from the declarer's tally i.
In tournaments a winning declarer gets an additional 50 points if they win, if the defending team wins however they receive 40 points each in addition to the declarer losing twice the game's value in points.
The deck consists of 32 cards. Some players in Eastern and Southern Germany and Austria prefer traditional German decks with suits of acorns , leaves , hearts and bells , and card values of deuce Daus , king König , Ober , Unter , 10, 9, 8, and 7 in all four suits.
By contrast, regions of the former West Germany had adopted a French-suited deck. At the beginning of each round each player is dealt ten cards, with the two remaining cards the so-called Skat being put face down in the middle of the table.
Dealing follows this pattern: deal three cards each, then deal the Skat , then four cards each, then three cards again "three— Skat —four—three".
In four-player rounds, the dealer does not receive any cards and skips actual play of the round. He or she may peek into the hand of one other player if allowed to do so but never into the Skat.
Dealing rotates clockwise around the table, so that the player sitting to the left of the dealer will be dealer for the next round.
After the cards have been dealt, and before the deal is played out, a bidding or auction German : Reizen is held to decide:.
The goal for each player during the bidding is to bid a game value as high as their card holding would allow, but never higher than necessary to win the auction.
How the actual game value is determined is explained in detail below and is necessary to understand in order to know how high one can safely bid. It is possible for a player to overbid, which leads to an automatic loss of the game in question.
Often this does not become obvious before the player picks up the Skat , or even not before the end of the game in question in case of a hand game, when the Skat is not picked up.
Players have therefore to exercise careful scrutiny during bidding, as not to incur an unnecessary loss. The bidding may also give away some information about what cards a player may or may not hold.
Experienced players will be able to use this to their advantage. The game value also called hand value , German : Spielwert is what the game will be worth after all tricks have been played.
It is determined not only by the 10 cards held, but also by the two-card Skat. The Skat always belongs to the declarer, and if it contains certain high cards this may change the game value.
It is therefore not possible in general to determine the exact game value before knowing the Skat. The game value is determined by the type of the game and the game level as explained below for the suit, grand and null games.
In a suit game German : Farbspiel , one of the four suits is the trump suit. Each suit has a base value German : Grundwert , as follows:.
This base value is then multiplied by the multiplier game level German : Spielstufe or Gewinngrad to determine the game value, so:.
The multiplier game level of 1 for becoming declarer is always assumed. It is then increased by one for each of the following:. In case of a Hand game declarer does not pick up the Skat , the following special cases are allowed.
Each one increases the multiplier game level by another point:. Cards in the trump suit are ordered as follows this is important to know when counting the length of the matador's jack straight :.
As mentioned above, the cards in the Skat are to be included when determining the multiplier game level also in case of the Hand game, where the Skat is unknown until after the deal has been played out.
During bidding, each player therefore has incomplete information regarding the true game value. The final game value is calculated by multiplying the base value for the suit by the multiplier game level:.
Grand game is a special case of suit game, in which only the Jacks are trumps in the same order as in the suit game:.
The base value for the grand game is 24 in the official rules. It used to be 20 until , and many hobbyists continued to use 20 well into the postwar era.
All other rules for determining game value are as in a suit game, that is, the base value of 24 is multiplied by the multiplier game level.
In the null game, declarer promises not to take any tricks at all. There is no trump suit, 10s are sorted directly above 9s, and jacks are treated as normal suit cards sorted between 10 and queen.
Thus the cards are ordered: A-K-Q-J The game values of null games are fixed, as follows:. The following examples give a player's holding and the contents of the Skat which will be unknown to all players during the auction and explain how to derive the game value.
The multiplier game level will be 2 1 for matador's jack straight plus 1 for becoming declarer. Note that game value is dependent not only on the cards held including the Skat but also on which game is being declared and the outcome of the play.
Each holding can thus be evaluated differently by different players. A risk-taking player might be willing to declare Hand on a holding on which another player might not — these two players will therefore give different valuations to the same holding.
However, after all tricks have been played, it is always possible to determine the exact game value by combining the actual holding with the type of game and outcome of the play.
Only then it becomes apparent if declarer has won or lost if he overbid. Assuming a trump suit of hearts in a suit game, this holding will have a different valuation before and after the Skat has been examined.
With Hearts as trump, the game value will always be at least that much. Now, assuming declarer wins by taking 95 points in tricks, after having declared Hand and Schneider , the actual game value will be as follows:.
The player could have bid up to that value during the auction. Now for the special cases: if you think you can do more than just win, you can add points for the special cases.
The highest possible multiplier game level is that is with or without four jacks and all seven cards of trump suit including those in the Skat , if any 11, plus the maximum of 7 for becoming declarer, Hand , Schneider , declaring Schneider , Schwarz , declaring Schwarz and Ouvert.
The order of bidding is determined by the seating order. Starting from the left of the dealer players are numbered clockwise: the first seat German : Vorhand , the second seat German : Mittelhand and the third seat German : Hinterhand.
In a three-player game, the dealer will be the third seat. In a four-player game the third seat will be to the right of the dealer.
Bidding starts by the player in second seat making a call to the player in first seat on which the latter can hold or pass. If the first seat player holds, the second seat player can make a higher call or pass himself.
This continues until either of the two players passes. The player in third seat is then allowed to continue making calls to the player who has not yet passed.
Bidding ends as soon as at least two players have passed. It is also possible for all three players to pass. The player who continues in this mnemonic is either the dealer in a three-player game or the player in third seat.
The mnemonic is commonly used among casual players. Example: Anna, Bernard and Clara are playing, and seated in that order around the table.
Anna deals the cards. Clara makes the first call to Bernard, who passes right away. Anna then makes two more calls to Clara, who accepts both bids.
Anna then passes as well. The bidding ends, with Clara being the declarer for this round. Except for "pass", only the possible game values are legal calls.
Therefore, the lowest possible call is 18, which is the lowest possible game value in Skat. Players are free to skip intermediate values, although it is common to always pick the lowest available call while bidding.
The sequence of possible double digit game values, beginning with 18 is 18—20—22—23—24—27—30—33—35—36—40—44—45—46—48—50—54—55—59— triple digit bids are possible albeit rare in a competitive auction.
Also, numbers are frequently abbreviated by only calling the lower digit of a value not divisible by 10 e. As the German words for "null" and "zero" are identical, this yields the rather unintuitive sequence 18—20—2—0—4—7—30 and so on.
If all players pass, the hand is not played and the next dealer shuffles and deals. A dealer never deals twice in a row. It is common in informal play to play a variant of Skat called Ramsch junk, rummage instead of skipping the hand and dealing for the next one.
This is not part of the sanctioned rules, however. In a pass-out game, the player in first seat will be the last one to pass.
If that player intends to become declarer, however, he has to make a call of at least 18 picking up the Skat in that situation implies the call.
Players Anna, Bernard and Clara are seated in that order, clockwise; Anna is the dealer. The auction proceeds as follows:.
The winner of the auction becomes declarer. He will play against the other two players. Before the hand is played, declarer either.
After putting two cards back into the Skat , declarer then either declares a suit game by announcing a trump suit, declares a grand game or a null game.
If Hand has been declared, the player may make additional announcements such as Schneider , Schwarz and Ouvert.
A common variant in non-sanctioned play allows the defenders to announce " Kontra " just before the first trick is played, if they have made or held at least one call.
In this case, the stakes will be doubled for the hand. In a less common further variation this process can be repeated twice more by announcing " Supra " and " Resupra " or more colloquially, " Bock " [ roe buck] and " Hirsch " [red deer] , or the like, which are colloquial augments of " Reh " roe deer.
The player in the first seat sitting to the left of the dealer leads to the first trick. The other two follow in clockwise direction.
Every player plays one card to the trick, which is in the middle of the table. The winner of a trick stacks the cards face down in front of him and leads to the next trick, which is again played clockwise.
Completed tricks are kept face down in front of the players who won them, until all the cards have been played. Examining completed tricks except for the last one is not allowed.
The tricks of the two players who are playing together are put together, either during or after play. If a player cannot follow suit, he may play any card including a trump card.