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Alan Mathison Turing OBE, FRS war ein britischer Logiker, Mathematiker, Kryptoanalytiker und Informatiker. Er gilt heute als einer der einflussreichsten Theoretiker der frühen Computerentwicklung und Informatik. Alan Mathison Turing OBE, FRS [ˈælən ˈmæθɪsən ˈtjʊəɹɪŋ] (* Juni in London; † 7. Juni in Wilmslow, Cheshire) war ein britischer Logiker. Alan Mathison Turing wurde in Großbritannien geboren. Im Mathestudium fing Turing an, die Grundlagen für moderne. Alan Turing | Hochhuth, Rolf | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. Alan Turing hatte darauf eine einfache Antwort: Wenn es ein Computer schafft, sich im Dialog mit Menschen als Mensch zu tarnen. Er entwickelte dazu einen.
Alan Turing zählt zu den Erfindern des modernen Computers und gilt als einer der wichtigsten Wissenschaftler des Jahrhunderts, dessen Beiträge zur. Alan Mathison Turing wurde in Großbritannien geboren. Im Mathestudium fing Turing an, die Grundlagen für moderne. Alan Turing hatte darauf eine einfache Antwort: Wenn es ein Computer schafft, sich im Dialog mit Menschen als Mensch zu tarnen. Er entwickelte dazu einen.
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Adam Turing VideoAlan Turing: The Enigma He wrote a paper on Poker Jacks Or Better chemical basis of morphogenesis  and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov—Zhabotinsky reactionfirst observed in the s. Charles Richards Alex Lawther One of their ideas was embodied in a machine called a Bomba. Visa Karte Abgelehnt Did You Know? Archived from the original on 3 December Newman strongly promoted Turing's principle of the Sat1 Online Spiele computer, but unlike Turing, intended no personal involvement with engineering. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. BBC News Technology. Computer: A History of the Information Machine.
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Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Won 1 Oscar. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Benedict Cumberbatch Alan Turing Keira Knightley La carrera profesional de Turing se vio truncada cuando lo procesaron por su homosexualidad.
Coincidiendo con el Mills en la Universidad de Surrey. La estatua conmemora el Una leyenda urbana asegura que el logo de Apple Computers mordisco de la manzana rinde homenaje a Turing y su suicidio comiendo una manzana envenenada con cianuro.
De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. BBC News Technology. Consultado el 26 de abril de Consultado el 31 de diciembre de Basic Books.
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The Essential Turing. Alan Turing. Hodges, Andrew The Enigma of Intelligence. UK: Unwin Paperbacks. Lahoz-Beltra, Rafael Del primer ordenador a la inteligencia artificial.
Sevenster, Arjen; Gandy, R. Collected Works of A. Teuscher, Christof, ed. Agar, Jon Turing and the Universal Machine.
Duxford: Icon. The government machine: a revolutionary history of the computer. Alexander, C. The work on 'ordinal logics', probably his most difficult and deepest mathematical work, was an attempt to bring some kind of order to the realm of the uncomputable.
This also was connected to the question of the nature of mind, as Turing's interpretation of his ideas suggested that human 'intuition' could correspond to uncomputable steps in an argument.
But Turing never pursued this line of development after Instead, he was increasingly preoccupied with more immediate problems which demanded logical skills.
True to the concreteness of the Turing machine, he also spent time at Princeton making a cipher machine based on using electromagnetic relays to multiply binary numbers.
Even then he saw a link from 'useless' logic to practical computation. Although not one of the political intellectuals of the s, Turing followed current events and was influenced in studying ciphers by the prospect of war with Germany.
In Turing was offered a temporary post at Princeton by von Neumann but instead returned to Cambridge. He had no University lectureship; in the year he lived on his King's College fellowship, as logician and number theorist.
Unusually for a mathematician, he joined in Wittgenstein's classes on the philosophy of mathematics; unusually again, he engineered gear-wheel parts for a special machine to calculate the Riemann Zeta-function.
Publicly, he sponsored the entry into Britain of a young German Jewish refugee. Secretly, he worked part-time for the British cryptanalytic department, the so-called Government Code and Cypher School.
His appointment marked the first scientific input into a hitherto arts-based department. That revolution was caused by the failure of pre-scientific methods to penetrate the mechanical Enigma cipher used by Germany.
No significant progress was made, however, until the gift of vital ideas and information in July from Poland, where mathematicians had been employed on the problem much earlier.
Upon British declaration of war on 3 September, Turing took up full-time work at the wartime cryptanalytic headquarters, Bletchley Park.
The Polish work was limited as it depended upon the very particular way the Germans had been using the Enigma. One of their ideas was embodied in a machine called a Bomba.
The way forward lay in Turing's generalisation of the Polish Bombe into a far more powerful device, capable of breaking any Enigma message where a small portion of plaintext could be guessed correctly.
Another Cambridge mathematican, W. Welchman, made an important contribution, but the critical factor was Turing's brilliant mechanisation of subtle logical deductions.
From late onwards, the Turing-Welchman Bombe made reading of Luftwaffe signals routine. In contrast, the more complex Enigma methods used in German Naval communications were generally regarded as unbreakable.
Happy to work alone on a problem that defeated others, Turing cracked the system at the end of , but it required the capture of further material by the Navy, and the development of sophisticated statistical processes, before regular decryption could begin in mid Turing's section 'Hut 8', which deciphered Naval and in particular U-boat messages, then became a key unit at Bletchley Park.
By the end of , as the United States entered the war, the battle of the Atlantic was moving towards Allied advantage. On 1 February , the Atlantic U-boat Enigma machine was given an extra complication and this advantage was suddenly wiped out: nothing could be decoded and catastrophe loomed.
Besides illustrating the always razor-edge state of the war of wits, this crisis brought about a new ingredient in Alan Turing's experience: electronic technology made its first appearance at Bletchley Park as telephone engineers were pressed into an effort to gain ever higher speeds of mechanical working.
As it turned out, however, the electronic engineers found themselves called upon to mechanize the breaking of the 'Fish' material: messages enciphered on the quite different system used for Hitler's strategic communications.
Here again Turing's statistical ideas underlay the methods employed, though it was M. Newman who played the organising role. The conjunction of Turing's thoughts with the practicality of large-scale electronic machinery, arising from this technical U-boat Enigma change, came to have momentous consequences.
By Alan Turing was the genius loci at Bletchley Park, famous as 'Prof', shabby, nail-bitten, tie-less, sometimes halting in speech and awkward of manner, the source of many hilarious anecdotes about bicycles, gas masks, and the Home Guard; the foe of charlatans and status-seekers, relentless in long shift work with his colleagues, mostly of student age.
To one of these, Joan Clarke, he proposed marriage, and was gladly accepted. But then he retracted, telling her of his homosexuality. Turing crossed the Atlantic in November , for highest-level liaison not only on the desperate U-boat Enigma crisis, but on the electronic encipherment of speech signals between Roosevelt and Churchill.
Before his return in March , logical weaknesses in the changed U-boat system had been brilliantly detected, and U-boat Enigma decryption was effectively restored for the rest of the war.
With the battle of the Atlantic regained for the Allies, crisis resolved, chess champion C. Alexander, hitherto Turing's deputy, took charge of Hut 8.
Turing became an all-purpose consultant to the by now vast Bletchley Park operation. As such he saw the 'Fish' material cracked by the Colossus machines, brought into operation just before D-Day, demonstrating the feasibility of large-scale digital electronic technology.
Turing himself devoted much time to learning electronics: ostensibly for creating his own, elegant speech secrecy system, which he effected with the aid of one assistant, Donald Bayley, at nearby Hanslope Park.
But he had another and more ambitious end in view: in the last stage of the war for his part in which he was awarded an OBE he planned the embodiment of the Universal Turing Machine in electronic form, or in effect, invented the digital computer.
In , at the invasion of Normandy that Allied control of the Atlantic allowed, Alan Turing was almost uniquely in possession of three key ideas: his own concept of the universal machine the potential speed and reliability of electronic technology the inefficiency in designing different machines for different logical processes.
Combined, these ideas provided the principle, the practical means, and the motivation for the modern computer, a single machine capable of handling any programmed task.
He himself was as eager as anyone in the world to bring them together, and was spurred even more by a fourth idea: that the universal machine should be able to acquire and exhibit the faculties of the human mind.
Even in he spoke to Donald Bayley of 'building a brain'. Turing was captivated by the potential of the computer he had conceived.
Although his work had shown the absolute limitations of the computable, he had become fascinated by what Turing machines could do, rather than by what they could not.
He had long abandoned his youthful expectations of finding free will or free spirits through quantum mechanics. His later thought was strongly determinist and atheistic in character.
And by the end of the Second World War he had turned against the tentative idea that there were steps of 'intuition' in human thought corresponding to uncomputable operations.
Instead, he held that the computer would offer unlimited scope for practical progress towards embodying intelligence in an artificial form.
For the second time, he experienced being pre-empted by a parallel American publication, in this case the EDVAC plan for an electronic computer, with Von Neumann's name attached.
Nonetheless, this publication when it appeared in June worked in practice to Turing's advantage, American competition stimulating the National Physical Laboratory to plan a rival project, to which he was appointed a Senior Principal Scientific Officer.
Turing despised his nominal superior J. Womersley, but at least initially this applied mathematician showed a rapid appreciation of the scope of Turing's ideas, and with a eye for acronyms steered Turing's design towards formal approval in early as the Automatic Computing Engine, or ACE.
Turing's detailed computer scheme was drawn up in a continuation of wartime spirit: as a plan that could be effected immediately with the memory storage cumbersome acoustic delay lines, as used in radar that was to hand.
Turing knew that superior technology would soon transform design: his emphasis was on speed in every sense, and in the exploitation of the universal machine concept.
This meant, in particular, implementing arithmetical functions by programming rather than by building in electronic components, a concept different from that of the American-derived designs.
The hardware design was short-term; but his prospectus for the use of the machine was visionary. Turing projected a computer able to switch at will from numerical work to algebra, codebreaking, file handling, or chess-playing.
Methods for handling subroutines included a suggestion that the machine could expand its own programs from an abbreviated form, ideas well ahead of contemporary American plans.
A later talk February depicted a national computer centre with remote terminals, and the prospect of the machine taking over more and more of its own programming work.
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